Introduction by

BISHOP W. J. GAINES, D.D., President of the Congress, Atlanta, Ga.

With Introductory Letters by

HON. CLARK HOWELL, Editor "Atlanta Constitution," Atlanta, Ga.

PROFESSOR. BOOKER T. WASHINGTON, LL.D., President Tuskeegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala. RT. REV. BISHOP C. K. NELSON, D.D., Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Georgia, Atlanta, Ga. REV. E. C. MORRIS, D.D., President National Baptist Convention, Helena, Ark. REV. BISHOP W. A. CANDLER, D.D., Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Atlanta, Ga. REV. E. P. COWAN, D.D., Cor. Sec'y. Board of Missions for Freedmen, Pittsburg, Pa.

Published by the Authority of the Board of Directors of the Congress

Edited by


Assistant General Secretary Epworth League M. E. Church ; Author Afro- American Press ; Corresponding Secret ary of the Congress, Atlanta, Ga.

PROF. J. W. E. BOWEN, D.D., Ph.D.,

Prof. Historical Theology Gammon Theological Seminary; Author National Sermons; "Africa and the American Negro" ; "'Appeal to the King" ; etc. ; Assistant Corre- sponding Secretary of the Congress, Atlanta, Ga.

Atlanta, Ga. D. E. Luther Publishing Co. 1902

Copyright, 1902, By D. E. Luther Publishing Co.

(Pros", of the Foote & Davies Co., Atlanta.)


The Publishers of "The United Negro: His Problems and His Progress/' have great faith in the book and make no excuse for the same. In the first place, they join with the editors in their great desire to serve the public with helpful and inspiring reading matter. They recognize, in these days when books are multiplied to such great extent as to give modern conformation to the ancient Biblical declaration, that "of making books there is no end," that to win the public favor a book "must be well written as to matter, timely in its discussions, gratifying a public need, and attractive in its typo- graphical make-up. We are ready to declare that the variety, rich- ness, and fulness of the contents of this book can not be called in question. As to the timeliness of its discussions, it is safe to say that no question is more burning before the American people to-day than the JsFegro Question. Moreover, the best minds of the nation are constantly agitating the question in order to arrive at its right solution. Further, well known acts and facts establish the convic- tion that both races are seeking the right and true way. In the next place, it is significant and worthy of note that many of the wisest thinkers of the Negro race are speaking the truth in this book, and it can not fail to arrest the attention of the statesman of the nation as well as delight and inspire the humble cottager in his daily toil. We are gratified to announce that we have .not spared toil, art, thought and money to make this book worthy of the writers' lofty purposes and sincere efforts to clothe the truth in as beautiful a form as the best typographical art is capable of. Standing in the position we do in the South, with many of the foremost white men of this section in our publishing house, we count it an honor to come to the help of our "Brothers in Black" and place at their disposal, not only the financial backing of the house, but our general interest in their welfare and our heartiest co-operation in every endeavor that seeks the uplift and the betterment of society in general.

We send forth this volume with faith in its writers, in its purpose and in its widespread sale for the good of the nation.

The Publishers

Atlanta, Ga., November, 1902 (iii)



The projectors of the Negro Young People's Christian and Edu- cational Congress, from the issuance of the very first call, promised that several distinct results woulu follow the Congress, as the night the day, and that they would be far-reaching and helpful in their effect upon the race and upon others for all time. It was promised that such a Congress of Christian and Educational workers of the race would be gathered together as never before witnessed, and that it would be great in numbers, great in the characte and quality of the numbers as well as in their utterances. A program was prom- ised that, for helpful discussion of vital topics affecting the basic principles of the Negro's life and living and for the wide field it would cover in religion, education and social life of our people, the like had never before been given by the Negro, for the Negro, or by the white man in behalf of the Negro in the world's history.

It was also promised that a declaration would be issued that would meet the sober, candid and just consideration and endorse- ment of all American people, while not in any sense compromising one single iota of rights, privileges and immunities belonging to them.

It was promised that the progressive side of the Negro race in music, letters, conduct and personnel would be so greatly in evi- dence that, although the Congress be held on Southern soil and in Georgia, our people would command, by their very being and bear- ing, respect from all. It was promised that the Congress would be an object lesson of the bright side of the race to the brother in white, that he would be compelled to admit that there are two dis- tinct classes of Negroes, and that this, the christian educated class, should be treated as others of their kind, without respect to race. It was promised that the Congress was to deal with religion, edu- cation and society, the essentials to good citizenship and the pur- ifier of things political, rather than with politics as such.

It was promised that in the Congress would be gathered able, christian leaders, men and women of the race, who had wisdom (▼)


editors' preface

enough to know that diplomacy and conservatism upon the part of a race situated as the Negro is and related as he is to the other races in America is the position to assume, rather than one of incendiar- ism and radicalism. It was proposed to show that the educated and christian class believing in this method of adjusting our difficulties and troubles are in the majority. It was promised that the young men and women of the race who gathered would be inspired and encouraged as never before, and that to the thousands who came open, ready, thirsty and hungry for hope, encouragement' and in- spiration, they would not return without it.

It was promised that the gulf of denominational differences keep- ing the Negro apart would be in a national sense bridged by the Negro, and that he would thus conspicuously emphasize his intelli- gence in forgetting non-essentials for essentials, and in this coming together of all denominations achieve a result in history never before equaled by any race, even his brother in white. It was prom- ised that the Negro would grapple with his problems as he had never before done ; that he would go to the root of his troubles, and that while he might rise to congratulate himself upon "what God hath wrought" in him, he would never forget, during his presence in Atlanta, that he was here to study problems, and, while studying them, likewise emphasize that the "Negro meets to pray" over them, to get new strength for the fray and to start out afresh to bring the -masses as high up in the scale of christian life and living as he himself is. It was promised that, while studying problems and troubles within the race, the Congress would be optimistic and never pessimistic.

It was promised that the Congress would be spiritual, educa- tional and sociological.

It was lastly promised that the results above enumerated, sure to be realized by a careful and discreet "hewing to the line," would be embodied in book form and given to the world so that the race from cabin to mansion, the boy and the girl in the city and country, the humble, the lowly as well as the proud and rich, yea, that the united race everywhere might read, digest and absorb every scintilla of the purpose, spirit and results of this truly forward movement of

editors' PREFACE


the race to lift itself by its own mighty hand in one concerted, way, for the first time in the world's history.

Hence this book, "The United Negro : His Problems and His Prog- ress. " It can be truthfully said, and will be generally accepted, that every promise made with reference to this movement has been realized to as great an extent as the time thus far justifies. It was the greatest meeting of the race ever held in numbers, in quality, in personnel, in program, in field of discussion covered by the program, in declaration of principles and in effect upon the country in the creation of a sentiment friendly to the Negro, and it is but a whit this side of a miracle, that in forty years after the emancipation of the Negro from slavery he meets together in an Interdenomina- tional Congress of Christian and Educational Workers, with an at- tendance of six thousand, which at least one thousand of the best journals, religious and secular, North, South, East and West, white and black, declare marks a new epoch and a new page in the history of the race. This book goes to the race as a message from the race. It goes to the American people without respect to race as a mes- sage from one-eighth of its population as to its present and future. Surely as the book chronicles the greatest meeting of the race, it forthwith becomes the greatest book of the race. Its four great divisions on Religion, Social and Moral Reform, Material Pros- perity and Education give it the breadth and scope of no other book on the race question. The contributors, in the person of those who delivered addresses on the various topics assigned at the Congress, are the representative religious and educational thinkers. Their views upon our race condition and its future, the remedies they suggest, come not as the idle dream of theorists, but as work- ers in the thickest of the battle. Every chapter focuses to a given point, and that point concerns some vital part of the race's exist- ence, either of achievement, which is given to inspire and encour- age, or work yet to be done, and duty still upon us, and how it may be done, as a warning and admonition that many bridges are yet to be crossed-

The book is a most valuable historical and biographical work, and a picture gallery of worthy men and women. As a work of his-


editors' preface

tory, giving- facts and figures about the missionary and educational efforts of the race for the race, or of the brother in white in behalf of the race, nothing like it has ever been issued. These facts and figures of each church and society have for the first time been put in such a position as to make this book a valuable historical treatise for ready reference. These facts are given by the distinguished gentlemen officially in charge of all these interests, and are therefore authoritative. No book of the race ever had such an array of dis- tinguished leaders to contribute to it.

It must be remembered that men of all denominations and agencies working among the Negro people are contributors.

As this volume of light, cheer, hope, comfort, purpose, history, warning, remedy and undying- confidence and unfaltering faith in God's purpose to help the Negro win every just, right, privilege and immunity belonging to him, goes' forth, it should be sent with the debt of gratitude to those who, on the one hand, helped to make the history such a success, which the volume chronicles, and on the other to those who help to publish the same. In the front rank of those of the first is the faithful office force who worked night and day for a mere pittance, compared with the amount they should earn in view of their faithfulness and efficiency. These young peo- ple have come from educational institutions of the race. They are christian young people, and it was only necessary for the writer to remind them in their tired, weary hours of night that they were working for their race and that was more than money. They are unknown in a national sense, but, like the firemen in the engine room of the battleship, they were, in no small degree, the men be- hind the guns. As this volume goes to the race so goes the names of these seventeen young men and women who thus labored night and day: Miss Marie J. Penn, Lynchburg, Va. ; Miss Mattie A. Carr, Lexington, Ky. ; Mrs. M- Belle Scott, Lynchburg, Va. ; Mr. J. B. Randolph, Pass Christian, Miss.; Mr. F. B. Smith, New Or- leans, La.; Mr. E. L. Gordon, Atlanta, Ga. ; Rev. S. E. C- Lord, Atlanta, Ga., were the stenographers. The other clerical force in the marking and copying departments were as follows: Mr. C. Y. Trigg, Lynchburg, Va. ; Mr. W. M. Gordon, Atlanta, Ga. ; Mr. Wm.

editors' preface


H. Deane, Atlanta, Ga. ; Mr. H. J. Brown, Chicago 111.; Mr. William Rice, South Carolina; Mr. Edward Crogman, Atlanta, Ga. ; Mr. J. C. Gibbs, of South Carolina; Mr. E- D. Caffey, of Alabama; Mr. J. W. Hagler, of Chattanooga, Tenn., and Miss Dora E. Johnson. These are here named as examples of faithfulness for our young people who read this volume. A large debt of gratitude is due to the conspicuous service which Hon. Clark Howell, editor of the Atlanta Constitution, rendered the Congress. Without the slight- est attempt to dictate the policy of the Congress for one moment, it is to his praise that he gave orders to report the Congress in full as it was, and not otherwise. Credit and thanks are also due Hon. John Temple Graves of the Atlanta News and Hon. F. H. Richard- son of the Atlanta Journal and the Associated Press bureau.

The contributors and speakers to the volume will get the full gratitude due them in the largest and most appreciative reading ever given a race book, but by no means are the editors, who work at the behest of the Board of Directors, insensible or ungrateful to these distinguished men and women for the choice thoughts as well as for the facts, figures and helpful suggestions which they give. Their literary style makes this volume of such excellence as will provoke but little literary criticism- The citizens of Atlanta, Chief of Police Ball, the pastors of our churches, the Interstate Fair As- sociation, as represented by Hon. H. H. Cabaniss, Captain Ellis of the Keely Co., Secretary Weldon, are due thanks for courtesies. It should not be forgotten that on the part of the local committee of arrangements, the Chairman, Prof. W. B. Matthews, A. M., and the Secretary, Prof. John Pope, A. B., rendered the most valuable, painstaking and exacting service to facilitate the wish of all from a local view point. The chairmen of local committees, especially of Press and Promotion, of Registration and of Entertainment did honorable and arduous service. It took all to make the Congress the success it was. What shall be said of the Commissioners and Field Secretaries? Suffice to say a special chapter is given them- Their voice from rostrum, their pen in the newspapers of the land aroused the people to the greatness of the movement. The Negro press is to be congratulated as well as thanked that they so gener-

editors' preface

ously gave prominence to a movement fraught with such good for the race.

Our President, Bishop Wesley J. Gaines, gave of his means and of his time, as well as his ripe and rich experience and his unques- tioned influence in the city of Atlanta and the nation to the realiza- tion of the Congress and its success. His opening address stamped him as one of the wisest as well as safest leaders. Called to the honorable office of President without warning, he comprehended the scope of the movement with the vision of a prophet and set the pace for all that followed in a truly statesman-like utterance. He may justly feel proud of the leadership whereunto he has been called of the most triumphant movement of the race.

Last, but actually first, a debt of deep gratitude is due John Wesley Edward Bowen, D. D., Ph. D., who was called to the office of First Assistant Corresponding Secretary to take charge of the program. Early in the history of the movement the writer realized that so vast an undertaking had been begun that its realization in the allotted time would be impossible with one secretary. The suc- cessful working out of our plans comprehended more labor than any one man could perform. On January 15th, 1902, at a meeting of the Board of Directors the appointment of Dr. Bowen as First As- sistant Corresponding Secretary was requested. This was done. Almost simultaneously with this action of the Board the Board of Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church appointed Dr. Bowen to represent the Methodist Episcopal Church on the Board of Directors. This was done by official action. It was a distinguished honor. At a meeting of the Program Committee in March, 1902, the work of the program was given to the corresponding secretaries, but the writer had all that he could do to plan for the field in work- ing up the Congress, to plan for the finances to run the Congress, and to take care of the correspondence, which averaged one hun- dred letters coming to the office per day, and from one to five hun- dred leaving the office daily. Thus the program, with the editing of the Souvenir Book of two hundred pages, was entirely upon Dr. Bowen. He did his work so well that the Congress is indebted to him for its great program, for the breadth of the discussion and for

editors' preface


the many complimentary expressions which have grown out of the character of the subjects and topics discussed, all of which are so vital to the race's uplift. He made possible this volume while he was making the program. The editing of this volume has devolved entirely upon him, which is a guarantee of the literary finish and excellence of the same. His service in the Negro Young People's Christian and Educational Congress, to the race and the country, stands solitary and alone among his people, while this volume, "The United Negro ; His Problems and His Progress," of which he is Editor-in chief, will stand as a monument to the ripe scholarship he displayed in building the greatest program of the greatest meeting of the race's history . It is a pleasure to pay tribute to such a dis- tinguished son of the race, who has been faithful over a few things and will most surely one day be called to preside over many.

To the Board of Directors, with especial reference to some who gave their loyal and faithful support, the writer is gratefully in- debted. Without the freedom given us and the confidence reposed in us, we could not have attained unto the measure of success which is now history.

This volume, with its wealth and treasure, so much needed every- where, would be in manuscript but for the Luther Publishing Com- pany, a great business firm of christian gentlemen, living in the South, who were impressed, as many others were of their race, of the good which this "truly wonderful convention" (as Dr- J. M. Buckley calls it) had accomplished. We desire to emphasize that the Luther Publishing Co. is a firm of christian men, and their hope, as ours, is that this book will find its way to cabin door as well as to city homes, and that everywhere it may illumine the homes of our people and give them knowledge to know that God is with His people and that daybreak is here.

Mr. D. E. Luther, the President and General Manager of the company, has been a leader in christian work in Atlanta for years, and as General Secretary of the Y. M. C. A. has brought the Asso- ciation to marked prosperity.

Another leading member of the firm Mr. E. H. Thornton is an Atlanta banker and substantially interested in all that helps and


editors' preface

builds up humanity. Their interest is more than money, their in- vestment represents an impression made, and may it not only be remunerative in a financial way, but in the uplift of the people who read this volume which they make possible- There are other Congresses to be held every three years. May this volume educate the people upon the movement. Let us de- voutly pray that in the education of the people upon the sincere purpose and spirit of the promoters of the Congress, who are among the best men of the race, the unmanly and unwarranted criticisms of the few may be in the future, as in the past, relegated to the rear while God's people move forwaid hundreds of thousands strong.

M,ay this message go forth to create cordial relations between all races under the banner of Jesus Christ. We are to live together, and may this volume in the hands of white man and black man serve as an inspiration and an eye-opener to the real aim of the en- lightened, ed. d, christian Negro. May it dispel darkness and scatter light, lead into the schools and churches the youth of the land, until there shall not be room to contain them ; cause mission- aries to be sent to the weak, the poor, the helpless and benighted ; kindle a flame of zeal and enthusiasm for righteousness, education and holy living wherever its pages shall be read, and the cause which makes it possible remembered. May homes, firesides, churches, Sunday Schools, young people's societies, Y. M. C. A.'s be blessed by its reading, and may it help the gospel of Christ Jesus to "cover the earth as the waters the mighty deep."

"Aid the dawning tongue and pen,

Aid it hopes of honest men,

Air1 it paper, aid it type,

Aid it, for the hour is ripe ;

And our earnest must not slacken into play; Young men of thought, young men of action, Clear the way."

I. GARLAND PENN, Corresponding Secretary, N. Y. P. C. & E. C.






Historical and Preliminary


CHAPTER I— Introductory Letters

Hon. Clark Howell, Editor "Atlanta Constitution," Atlanta, Ga 1

Prof. Booker T. Washington, LL. D., President Tuskegee Normal

and Industrial Institute, Tuskegee, Ala 2

Rt. Rev. C. K. Nelson, D. D., Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Geor- gia, Atlanta, Ga 2-3

Rev. E. C. Morris, D. D., President National Baptist Convention,

Helena, Ark 4-5

Rev. Bishop W. A. Candler, D. DM Methodist Episcopal Church

South, Atlanta Ga 6

Rev. E. P. Cowan, D. D., Corresponding Secretary Board of Mis- sions for Freedmen, Presbyterian Church U. S., Pittsburg, Pa. . 6-7

CHAPTER II— Introduction

Rev. Bishop W. J. Gaines, D. D., President of the Congress 8-11

CHAPTER III— Origin, Scope and Purpose of the Negro Young Peo- ple's Christian and Educational Congress Prof. J. W. E. Bowen, D. D., Ph. D 16-20

CHAPTER IV— Favorable Action by the Religious Denominations

and by Moral and Social Reform Organizations 21-27





CHAPTER V— Commendations

Letters: President Theodore Roosevelt 28-30

Governor J. C. W. Beckham, Kentucky 30

Governor W. E. Stanley, Kansas 30-31

Telegrams: J. Willis Baer, General Secretary United Society of

Christian Endeavor, Boston, Mass 31

Shlloh Baptist Association, Higginsville, Mo 31

Prof. W. H. Council, Ph. D., President A. & M. College, Normal,

Ala 32

Rev. Claudius B. Spencer, D. D., Editor Central Christian Ad- vocate, Kansas City, Mo 32


Addresses and Discussions on the Problems and Progress of the Race


Welcome Addresses


CHAPTER VI— Object of the Congress

Rev. Bishop W. J. Gaines, D .D 33-40

CHAPTER VII— On Behalf of the State

The Governor, Hon. A.D. Candler 41-42

On Behalf of the City

The Mayor, Hon. Livingston Mims 42-43

See also pages 580-587. On Behalf of the People

Mr. William Oscar Murphy, A. M 44-45

On Behalf of the Young People's Societies of the City

Secretary R. T. Weatherby, Y. M. C. A 45-46

INDEX XV Responses


CHAPTER VIII— On Behalf of the Board of Directors

Prof. I. Garland Penn, A. M 47-48

On Behalf of the Denominations in the Congress.

Rev. E. W. D. Isaacs, D. D.,Cor. Sec. National Baptist B. Y. P.

U., Vice-President of the Congress 49-54

On Behalf of the Agencies at Work Among the Race

Rev. W. H. Weaver, D. D., Field Agent Board of Missions for

Preedmen, Presbyterian Church, United States 54-56

CHAPTER IX— Fraternal Representatives from the Board of Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church

The Rev. Bishop John M. Walden, D. D., LL. D., Cincinnati, O. The Rev. Bishop Isaac WT. Joyce, D. D., LL. D., Minneapolis, Minn Fraternal Words

Bishop J. M. Walden, D. D., LL. D.; and The Race, Prof. J. W. E.

Bowen 57-59

CHAPTER X— Original Poem, "The Negro Meets to Pray," Written for the Congress

Rev. D. Webster Davis, A. M., Poet, Richmond, Va 60-62


Young People and the Church


CHAPTER XI— The Duty of the Church to the Young

Rev. J. A. Whitted, D. D., Raleigh, N. C 63-66

CHAPTER XII— The Young People's Societies as a Religious Force in the Church

Rev. J. S. Caldwell, D. D., General Steward, A. M. E. Zion Church,

Philadelphia, Pa 67-71

CHAPTER XIII— The Baptist Young People's Union

Rev. E. W. D. Isaacs, D. D., Corresponding Secretary National Bap- tist Young People's Union, Vice-President of the Congress, Nashville, Tenn 72-76



CHAPTER XIV— The Work of the A. M. E. Church Through Its

Sunday School Union Rev. W. D. Chappelle, 1). D., Corresponding Secretary Sunday

School Union, A. M. E. Church, Nashville, Tenn 77-83

CHATTER XV— Epworth League

Bishop Isaac W. Joyce. D. D., LL. D., President Epworth League,

If. E. Church, Minneapolis, Minn 84-86

CHAPTER XVI— A Plea for the Young People's Christian Endeavor

Rev. W. B. Johnson, D. D., Montgomery, Ala. 87-89


The Religious Life of the Race


CHAPTER XVII— The Present Religious Status of the American


Rev. Ernest Lyon, A. M., D. D., Baltimore, Md 90-100

CHAPTER XVIII— The Ante-Bellum Religious Life of the Race

Rev. George E. Morris, D. D., Morristown, N. J 101-106

CHAPTER XIX— The True and the False in the Revival Methods of the Race

Rev. A. C. Garner, Washington. D. C 107-113

Rev. A. L. Gaines, D. D., Norfolk, Va 113-117

CHAPTER XX— Tin: Need of a Properly Trained Ministry

Prof. A. W. Pegues, D. D., Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C. . . . 118-121 See also Chapter CXVII— Page 550.

SYMPOSIUM— The Contribution of the North to the Religious De- velopment of the Race

CHAPTER XXI— The Contribution of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church to the Development of the Negro

Rev. W. IL Nelson, D. D., Huntsville, Ala 122-126

INDEX xvii


CHAPTER XXII— The Work of the American Baptist Publication Society

Rev. S. N. Vass, D. D., District Secretary American Baptist Publi- cation Society, Raleigh, N. C , 127-137

CHAPTER XXIII— The America \ Bible Society and Its Work Among the Colored People of the South Rev. W. I. Haven, D. D., Corresponding Secretary American Bible

Society, New York, N. Y 138-140

CHAPTER XXIV— The Church Extension Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church and Its Work for the Negro Rev. H. A. Monroe. D. D., Philadelphia, Pa 141-145

CHAPTER XXV— What Improvements Should Be Made in the Re- ligious Worship of the Churches

Rev. S. A. Peeler, B. D., Greensboro, N. C 146-149

Mr. W. J. Trent, Secretary Young Men's Institute, Asheville,

N. C. . : 149-151

Rev. J. Will Jackson, D. D., Sedalia, Mo 152-155

Rev. G. R. Waller, D. D., Baltimore, Md 156-158

Rev. W7. G. Parks, D. D., Chattanooga, Tenn 159-160

Rev. B. M. Hubbard, D. D., New Orleans, La 161-163

Rev. J. H. Manly, D. D., Union, S. C 164-165

CHAPTER XXVI— Is the Educated Negro Active in Christian Work? What is the Remedy? Mr. James H. Thompson, General Secretary A. U. M. P. Church,

Wilmington, Del 166-168

Rev. James E. Mason, D. D.? Rochester, N. Y 168-170

Rev. B. J. Bolding, D. D., Washington, D. C 170-172

Prof. J. R. E. Lee, A. M., Tuskegee, Ala 173-175

Prof. R. M. Caver, A. B., Helena, Ark 175-176

Rev. M. J. Naylor, B. D., Lynchburg, Va 177-179

CHAPTER XXVII— Personal Evangelism or Daily Soul-Winning

Rev. C. H. Morgan, Ph. D., Rochester, Mich 1&0-181

CHAPTER XXVIII— The Bible in the Solution of the Race Problem

Rev. C. H. Claiborne, Swainsboro, Ga 182-184




Moral and Social Reform Questions and the Race


CHAPTER XXIX— The Social Status and Needs of the Colored Woman

Miss Mary A. Lynch, Livingston College, Salisbury, N. C. ... 185-187 CHAPTER XXIX— What Improvements Ake Necessary in the Pres- ent Home Life of the Race? Rev. G. L. Blackwell. D. I)., General Secretary A. M. E. Zion

Church, Philadelphia, Pa 187-190

CHAPTER XXX— The Effects of Secret and Benevolent Societies Upon the Life of the Race Rev. J. A. Bray, A. B., Athens, Ga 191-194

CHAPTER XXXI— To What Extent is Crime Increasing in the Race, and What is the Remedy? Rev. R. E. Jones, D. D., Field Secretary Sunday School Union, M.

E. Church, New Orleans, La 195-198

CHAPTER XXXII— How to Reach and Help the Poor of the Race

Rev. W. J. Howard, D. D., Washington, D. C 199-201

SYMPOSIUM— The Negro'6 Contribution to His Own Development


Mr. H. T. Kealing, A. M., Editor A. M. E. Review, Philadelphia,

Pa 202-209


Rev. N. C. Cleaves, D. D., Washington, D. C 210-^13

CHAPTER XXXV— The Social Settlement and Industrial Church Work in Cities

Rev. S. Timothy Tice, D. D., Cambridge, Mass 214-217

CHAPTER XXXV— The Unity of the Church

Rev. George W. Lee, D. D., Washington, n. C 217-218

CHAPTER XXXVI— What Should Be Done to Secure Christian Training in the Family?

Rev. R. A. Morrisey, D. D., Mobile, Ala 219-221



Mr. J. E. Shephard, Ph. G., Durham, N. C 222-224

Rev. W. M. Moss, D. D., Norfolk, Va 224-227

Miss Julia L. Caldwell, Dallas, Tex 227-230

President St. George Richardson, A. M., Jacksonville, Fla 230-233

Rev. S. T. Quann, Union Church, Wilmington, Del 233-234

Rev. W. H. Phillips D. D., Philadelphia, Pa 234-236

Prof. G. L. Tyus, A. M., Washington, Ark 236-238

Rev. E. B. Burroughs, D. D., Charleston, S. C 238-241

Rev. James S. Russell Lawrenceville, Va 241-244

CHAPTER XXXVII— To What Extent is the Race Addicted to to Drink? Its Evils; Its Cure

Rev. W. T. Johnson, B. D., Richmond, Va. 245-248

Rev. W. M. Flagg, Jr., B. D., Memphis, Tenn 248-252

Rev. W. G. Johnson, D. D., Macon, Ga 252-256

Rev. E. M. Jones, B. D., Montgomery, Ala 256-259

Rev. Elam White, Maysville, Ky 260-261

Rev. R. Splller, D. D., Hampton, Va 261-265

Rev. D. W. Cannon, D. D., Albany, Ga 266-267

Prof. F. W. Gross, A. M., Victoria, Tex 267-271

Prof. J. Wilson Pettus, Fort Smith, Ark 271-273


The Race and Child Culture


CHAPTER XXXVIII— The Place of Amusement in a Child's Life

Miss E E. White, Atlanta, Ga. 274-275

CHAPTER XXXIX— Christ From Birth to Ascension

Rev. Chas. H. Morgan, Ph. D., Rochester, Mich 276-278

CHAPTER XL— The Necessity for the Earlt Conversion of Children

Mrs. Sarah B. Holmes, Baltimore, Md 279-280

CHAPTER XL I— The Place of Children in the Church

Rev. G. T. Dilliard, D. D., Synodical Missionary, Presbyterian Sun- day School Board, Columbia, S. C 281-283

Hon. S. W. Easley, Jr., Atlanta, Ga 283-284




CHATTER XLII— The Sunday School the Training Department of the Church

Rev. C. C. Jacobs, A. M ., D. D., Field Secretary Sunday School

Union. M. B. Church. Sumter. S. C 285-287

CHAPTER XLII I— How to Make the Bible Interesting to Children President Thos. H. Amos D. D.. Harbison College, Abbeville,

S. C 287-288


The Negro and the Missionary Spirit of the Age


CHAPTER XLIV— The Redemption of Africa

Rev. Bishop L. J. Coppin, D. D.. Bishop of Africa, A. M. E. Church,

Cape Town. South Africa 289-292

CHAPTER XLV— Opportunity: Responsibility

Rev. Bishop Joseph C. Hartzell. D. D., LL. D., Missionary Bishop

of Africa, Methodist Episcopal Church, Vivi, Africa 293-296

CHAPTER XLVI— The Xeediest Class in the South

Rev. Crawford Jackson Editor Christian Union, Atlanta, Ga. . . 297-298 CHAPTER XLVII— The New Era of the American Xegro in the Evangelization of Africa Rev. II. B. Parks. I). I).. Missionary Department A. M. E. Church,

New York City 299-301

CHAPTER XLVIII— The Stewart Missionary Foundation for Africa and Its Work in the Redemption of Africa Rev. W. W. Lucas. B. D., Secretary Stewart Missionary Founda- tion for Africa, Atlanta, Ga 302-304

CHAPTER XLIX— The Spirit, Purpose. Scope and Outcome of the Negro's Effort in Church Building Rev. B. F. Watson, D. D., Secretary Church Extension Board A.

M. E. Church, Philadelphia, Pa 305-307

CHAPTER L The Responsibility of the American Negro for the Evangelization of Africa Rev L. O. Jordan. D. D., Corresponding Secretary National Baptist

Foreign Mission Board, Louisville, Ky 308-310


PART VII Civic and Material Status of the Race


CHAPTER LI— The Material Progress of the Race

Rev. W. E. Lamp ton, D. D., Financial Secretary A. M. u. Church,

Washington, D. C 311-314


President Joseph A. Booker, D. D., Arkansas Baptist College, Little

Rock, Ark. 315-316


Rev. I. L. Thomas, D. D., Baltimore, Md 317-320


Rev. J. H. Welch. D. D., Charleston, S. C 321-322

CHAPTER LV— The Colored Woman and Her Relation to the Do- mestic Problem

Mies Nannie H. Burroughs, Corresponding Secretary Woman's Con- vention, Auxiliary to the National Baptist Convention, Louis- ville, Ky 324-329

CHAPTER L VI— The Fundamental Requirements in the Growth of the Negro and Other Races The Rt. Rev. Bishop C. K. Nelson, D. D., of the Protestant Epis- copal Church of Georgia, Atlanta, Ga 330-338

CHAPTER LVII— The Book Wtonderful and How to Master It

Rev. C. H. Morgan, Ph. D., Rochester, Mich 339-340

CHAPTER LVIH— The Spiritual Life of the Young Negro the Basis for His Usefulness as a Man and Citizen President J. E. Cook, D. D., Henderson Normal and Industrial

Institute, Henderson, N. C 341-342

CHAPTER LIX— The Purpose and Work of the International Sunday-School Association among Colored People Prof. I. Garland Penn 343-349




The Educational Life of the Race



CHAPTER LX— The American Missionary Association

Rev. George W. Moore, B. D., Field Secretary American Missionary

Association, Nashville, Tenn 350-354

CHATTER LXI— The Educational Department of the A. M. E. Church

Prof. John R. Hawkins, A. M., Corresponding Secretary Educa- tional Department A. M. E. Church, Kittrell, N. C 355-359

CHAPTER LXII— The Work of the American Baptist Home Mission Society

Rev. H. L. Moorehouse, D. D., Field Secretary American Baptist

Home Mission Society, New York City 360-362

CHAPTER LXIII— The Work of the Board of Missions for Freedmen of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America

Rev. W. H. Weaver, D. D., Field Agent Board of Missions for

Freedmen, Pittsburg, Pa 363-369

CHAPTER LXI V— The Wtork of the Board of Education of the M. E. Church in the Elevation of the Negro

Mr. L. J. Price, South Atlanta, Ca 370-372

CHAPTER LXV— Educational Board National Baptist Convention Rev. W. Bishop Johnson, D. D., Corresponding Secretary, Washing- ton, D. C 373-375

CHAPTER LXVI— The Purpose, Spirit and Results of the Educa- tional Work of the Methodist Episcopal Church for the Negro

Rev. M. C. B. Mason, D. D., Senior Corresponding Secretary of the

Freedman's Aid and Southern Educational Society 376-381

CHAPTER LXVII— The Contribution of the South to the Education of the Race

Prof. Booker T. Washington, A. M., LL. D., President Tuskegee

Institute, Tuskegee, Ala 382-388




Public School Teachers Conference


CHAPTER LXVIII— The Relation of the Public School Teaches to

the Moral and Social Elevation of the Race Prof. W. S. Scarborough, LL. D., Wilberforce University, Wilber-

force, Ohio 389-393

Prof. J. R. Crockett, Clinton Academy, Rock Hill, S. C 392-393

President W. H. Lanier, A. M., A. & M. College, West Side, Miss. . 393-395

CHAPTER LXIX— The Relation of the Public School Teacher to Civic Righteousness President Nathan B. Young, A. M., A. & M. College, Tallahassee,

Fla 395-396

Prof E. L. Chew, Atlanta, Ga ' 396-397

President Inman E. Page, A. M., Langston University, Langston,

Oklohoma Territory 397-398

CHAPTER LXX— The Necessity for High Moral Character in the Teacher

Rev. S. S. Jolley, A. B., Philadelphia, Pa 399-400

Rev. J. W Smith A B., Clarksville, Tenn 401

Rev. Geo. W. Henderson, D. D., Straight University, New Orleans,

La. . . 402-403

Rev. J. J. Durham, M. D., D. D., Savannah, Ga. 404

Rev. W. D. Johnson, D. D., Athens, Ga 405

Miss Clara Pullen, Atlanta, Ga 406

Prof. J. W. Gilbert, A. M., Augusta, Ga 406-409

Rev. Daniel G. Hill, Washington, D. C 409-410

Prof. J. R. L. Diggs, Union University, Richmond, Va 410-412

Prof. G. E. Read, A. M., Spiller Academy, Hampton, Va 412-414

Rev. L. E. B. Rosser, Dyersburg, Tenn 414-415

Rev. C. T. Stamps, B. D., Edwards, Miss 415-517

Rev. H. N. Newsome, D. D., Mobile, Ala . . 417-418




OHAPTBB LXXI The Relation of the Public School Teacher to the Religious Forces Prof. R. S. Loviuggood, A. M.. Samuel Houston College. Austin,

Texas 419-420

Rev. EL Seb. Doyle. A. M.. D. D., Augusta, Ga 421-423

Rev. R. V. Simins. New Iberia. La 423-421

Rev. S. T. Clantou, I). I).. New Orleans. La 424-425

Mrs. Grace Shim m-Cu minings, Alexandria, Va 425-427

Rev. G. W. Porter, D. D.. Vickshurg Miss 427-428

CHAPTER LXX1I— The Christian Teacher the Hope uf Negro America

Miss Charlotte E. Hawkins, Cambridge, Mass 428-429

CHAPTER LXXI II— The Value of Public Education

Rev. W. M. Alexander, D. D., Corresponding Secretary Lott Carey Foreign Mission Board, Baltimore, Md 430-432


The Colored Woman in the Home and Social Reform


CHAPTER LXXIV— Pure Motherhood the Basis of Racial Integrity Mrs. W. A. Hunton, Normal, Ala 433-435

CHAPTER LXXV— How Can Mothers Teach Their Daughters and Sons Social Purity

Mrs. I. Garland Penn, Atlanta, Ga 436-438

Mrs. P. J. Bryant, Atlanta, Ga 439-440

CHAPTER LXXVI— How the Colored Woman Can Make Home More Attractive

Mrs. Julia Mason Layton, Washington. D. C 411-442

CHAPTER I. X X VII— Origin and Benefits of the Fireside Schools

Miss Joanna P. Moore, Editor of Hope, Nashville, Tenn 443-445

CHAPTER LXXV1II— The Mother's Duty to Her Adolescent Daughters and Sons Mrs. Rosa D. Bowser, Richmond, Va 446-448




CHAPTER LXXIX— The Social Status of the Colored Woman and

its Betterment

Mrs. V. W. Broughton. Nashville, Term 449-450

CHAPTER LXXX— Child Marriage a Social Crime; Its Remedy

Mis. J. W. E. Bowen, Atlanta, Ga 451-453

CHAPTER LXXXI— What Can the Colored Woman Do to Improve the Street and Railroad Deportment of the Youth Deaconess Annie E. Hall, of the Woman's Home Missionary

Society, Atlanta, Ga 454-456

CHAPTER LXXXII— Why Women are Interested in the Prohibition of the Liquor Traffic Mrs. M. A. Ford, Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ga 457


The Duty of the Church to the Men of the Race

CHAPTER LXXXII— The Gospel of the Body

R. F. Boyd, A. M.s M. D., Professor of Gynaecology and Clinical

Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tenn 458-460

CHAPTER LXXXIV— The Bible the Basis of all True Piety

Rev. J. P. Wragg, B. D., Field Agent American Bible Society,

Atlanta, Ga 1 , 461-463

CHAPTER LXXXV— The Church and the Young Man

Prof. J. J. Jenkins, Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Huntsville,

Ala. . 464

CHAPTER LXXXVI— The Duty of the Church to Young Men

' Rev. Silas X. Floyd, A. M., D. D., District Secretary American

Baptist Publication Society, Atlanta, Ga 465-467

CHAPTER LXXXVII— The Hereditary Effects of the Immorality of the Father upon the Children

Rev. H. T Johnson, Ph D., D. D., Editor Christian Recorder, Phila- delphia, Pa 468-470

Rev. J. H. Scott, B. D., Centreville, Md 470-471



CHAPTER LXXXVIII— The Y. M. C. A. as an Agency in the Sal vation of Young Men Rev. J. E. Mooreland, International Secretary Y. M. C. A., Wash- ington, D. C 472-474

CHAPTER LXX XIX— What Should We Do to Save Oub Youth

Hon. John C. Dancy, Recorder of Deeds, Washington. D. C. . . 475-476

CHAPTER XC— The Crimes of the Negro Men Against the Women of the Race and How to Overcome Them Rev. James E. Sarjeant, D. D., President A. U. If. P. Church,

Wilmington, DeL 477-478

CHAPTER XCI— Men and the Church

Rev. T. B. Xeely, D. D., LL. D., Corresponding Secretary Sunday- School Union M. E. Church, New York, N. Y 479-4S1

CHAPTER XCII— Our Duty to the Yoing Men of the Race

Rev. J. B. Middleton, D. D., Summerville, S. C 482-483



Musical and Elocutionary Features of the Congress

CHAPTER XCIII— The Great Concert 484-485

CHAPTER XC IV— Original Poem: "De Nigger s Got to Go"

Rev. Webster Davis, A. M., Richmond, V a. 486-488

CHAPTER XCV— Other Readers

J. W. E. Bowen